Marcha atrás con el estacionamiento medido

La justicia declaró inconstitucional, en sentencia del tema de fondo, la privatización del sistema de estacionamiento regulado. El GCABA deberá asumir la prestación del servicio público.

En cuanto al acarreo de los vehículos mal estacionados, empresas que facturan entre 10 y 14,5 millones mensuales pagan un irrisorio canon de 55 mil pesos por idéntico período de explotación. Durante las gestión PRO el costo del “remolque disciplinario” se incrementó un 500%, de 150 a 750 pesos.

Con fecha 19 de junio de 2018, el juez Francisco Ferrer dictó sentencia del tema de fondo donde detalló que la omisión del procedimiento de doble lectura violó la potestad de los habitantes de la ciudad a ejercer su derecho a la participación y a la Democracia Participativa a través de la audiencia pública que obligatoriamente debió convocarse.

 

Aquella promulgación

El 1º de diciembre de 2016, la Legislatura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires aprobó la Ley N° 5.728 [1] que autorizó la concesión del Sistema de Estacionamiento Regulado por el plazo de 10 años, modificando a su vez la Ley N° 4.888.

Aquella ley fue aprobada por 33 votos (PRO + Coalición Cívica) cuando debió tener una mayoría especial de los dos tercios de los legisladores (40 votos). A raíz de esta votación se presentó una acción de amparo que recayó en el Juzgado N° 23 secretaría N° 45 y está caratulada como “Desplats, Gustavo María contra GCABA por amparo – Otros” [2].

 Se cuestionó que la ley N° 5.728 fue aprobada por mayoría absoluta y en simple lectura cuando debió ser aprobada por mayoría agravada de los dos tercios del total de los miembros de la Legislatura (40 votos) y cumpliendo el procedimiento de doble lectura con la realización de audiencia pública obligatoria. 

 

La actual sentencia

El pasado 19 de junio del corriente año, el juez Francisco Ferrer dictó sentencia del tema de fondo haciendo lugar a los planteos realizados en la demanda y declaró que para modificar los artículos [3] debieron cumplir con el procedimiento de doble lectura exigible.

Asimismo, declaró que, encontrándose cumplidos los recaudos impuestos por la Constitución de la Ciudad [4], resultaba exigible que fueran aprobados por la mayoría de dos tercios del total de los miembros de la Legislatura.

En consecuencia, declaró la inconstitucionalidad de los artículos anteriormente identificados, aclarando que idéntico reproche se hace extensivo a las cláusulas de su antecedente que regularon idénticas hipótesis [5].

También expresó que se violó el derecho a la libertad de expresión de los habitantes en cuanto comprende participar del debate público a través de los procedimientos legalmente establecidos.

Adicionalmente, debido a la caducidad de plazos, el GCABA deberá asumir la prestación del servicio público. En efecto, la Ley N° 5.728 dispuso que si en el plazo de 18 meses, contados a partir de la promulgación de la presente ley, no se adjudica la concesión del sistema de estacionamiento regulado, el Poder Ejecutivo deberá proceder a brindar el servicio público por sí. Dado que este plazo venció el 9 de junio de 2018. Con esta sentencia el GCABA no podrá adjudicar la licitación, por lo tanto, deberá asumir la prestación del servicio inmediatamente.

 

Los fundamentos de la sentencia

a) Tanto la Ley N° 4.888 y N° 5.728 adoptaron medidas tendientes a otorgar en concesión servicios vinculados con el Servicio de Estacionamiento Regulado que afecta calles, y también confiere derechos sobre otros inmuebles que integran el dominio públicodestinados a playas de acarreo–,  cabe concluir que debieron cumplir con el procedimiento de doble lectura [6].

b)Estas leyes toda vez que disponen sobre bienes inmuebles de la Ciudad, a la vez que establecen concesionesconstituyen derechos sobre el dominio público de la Ciudad, por un plazo que supera los cinco años, debieron haber contado, para su sanción, con la mayoría agravada [7] (40 votos).

c)La alteración de predios zonificados como Urbanización Parque(UP) debió haberse efectuado siguiendo el procedimiento de doble lectura [8].

 

Antecedentes y datos:

  • – El contrato de concesión del acarreo de autos y el estacionamiento medido está vencido desde el año 2001. Las empresas que operan las grúas son STO (Dakota S.A) y SEC (BRD S.A.C.I.F.I). Ambas empresas se dividen la Ciudad: STO desde Viamonte hacia el Norte y SEC de Viamonte al Sur.
  •  Dakota y BRD pagan un canon irrisorio: alrededor de 100 mil pesos por mes entre ambas.
  • – El costo del acarreo incrementó un 500% en 8 años. de 150 a 750 pesos.
  •  De esta forma, durante la gestión Pro, el acarreo acumula una suba de 500 por ciento: en 2008 aumentó de 150 a 190 pesos (40%); en 2012 a 350 (84%); en 2014 a 450 pesos (29% más) y otro 29% a 580$ (2015) y en 2016 a 750 pesos.
  • – Hay entre 10.000 y 14.000 acarreos mensuales por empresa. Las grúas levantan hasta 550 autos en días laborables[9]. Es decir, ganan entre 7,5 millones y 10,5 millones de pesos mientras sólo pagan 55 mil pesos de canon cada una. En menos de 9 horas las dos empresas recuperan el irrisorio canon de 100 mil pesos que le pagan a la Ciudad” [10].
  • – A partir de fines del año 2014 el servicio tendría que haber sido prestado por el Gobierno de la Ciudad directamente en virtud de la ley N° 4.888. No se cumplió y ahora se otorgó otra prórroga por la ley N° 5.728 hasta mediados de 2018 [11].
  •  La ley N° 5.728 establecía un incremento de casi 3 mil % de los espacios alcanzados actualmente por el estacionamiento medido.
  •  La Ley N° 5.728 ampliaba de 4.000 a 85.000 los espacios tarifados en un territorio de 203,3 km2, esto representaba el 23% del total de lugares posibles del que se dispone en Buenos Aires[10]. El resto de los espacios para estacionar (284.000 lugares) continuaban siendo gratuito.
  • – El sistema se ampliaba a unas 10.000 de las 24.400 cuadras con las que cuenta la Ciudad[13].
  •  Las grúas iban a llegar a 14 de las 15 comunas.

 

 

  1. Esta fue promulgada por el Decreto Nº 015/017 del 09/01/2017. Y se publicó en el Boletín Oficial N° 5.048 del 16/01/2017.
  2. Expte. N° A2248-2017/0. En la acción de amparo firmó como actor el Coordinador de Protocomuna Caballito con el apoyo del Legislador (MC) Gustavo Vera y el patrocinio del Observatorio del Derecho a la Ciudad.
  3. Los artículos que se citan son el 2, 4, 5 de la ley 5728,conjuntamente con sus Anexos, en tanto contemplan supuestos alcanzados por el artículo 89, incs. 1, 4 y 5 de la Constitución de la Ciudad.
  4. El artículo 82, incisos 4, y 5 de la Constitución de la Ciudad.
  5. Artículos 6, 7 y 8 de la ley 4888 y sus Anexos.
  6. Artículo 89, inciso 5 de la Constitución de la CABA.
  7. Mayoría agravadaconsagrada en el artículo 82, inciso 5° de la CCABA (40 votos).
  8. Doble lectura: previsto en el artículo 89, inciso 1° de la CCABA.
  9. https://www.clarin.com/ciudades/estacionamiento-medido-sistema-obsoleto-funciona-pleno-comienza-lenta-modernizacion_0_BJPKZaTzW.html
  10. http://www.diarioregistrado.com/sociedad/110024-ciudad–fuertes-criticas-al-aumento-del-acarreo-y-parquimetros.html
  11. Cláusula Transitoria II: En un plazo máximo de dieciocho (18) meses contados a partir de la promulgación de la presente ley, el Poder Ejecutivo adjudicará la Licitación Pública para la Concesión del Servicio Público de Servicios Relacionados con el Sistema de Estacionamiento Regulado. Vencido el plazo indicado para la adjudicación de la Licitación Pública para la Concesión del Servicio Público de Servicios Relacionados con el Sistema de Estacionamiento Regulado, sin que se hubiese dado satisfacción a lo establecido, el Poder Ejecutivo deberá proceder a brindar el servicio público por sí, garantizando al personal de las actuales concesionarias del servicio estabilidad laboral y su encuadre en el CCT 40/89. LEY N° 5.728. Sanción: 01/12/2016. Promulgación: Decreto Nº 015/017 del 09/01/2017
  12. https://www.clarin.com/ciudades/estacionamiento-medido-sistema-obsoleto-funciona-pleno-comienza-lenta-modernizacion_0_BJPKZaTzW.html
  13. http://www.iprofesional.com/notas/261304-combustibles-precios-gasto-autos-comercio-Adios-a-los-parquimetros-en-la-Ciudad-el-estacionamiento-medido-se-gestionara-por-celular?page_y=0

 

 

 

 

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