Padre Mugica

“Por el pueblo, desde el pueblo, para el pueblo.”
Por María Virginia Ameztoy
El 11 de mayo se cumplen 45 años del asesinato del sacerdote*

Pese a todo estaba satisfecho; los asistentes a la misa, incondicionales de su amigo el padre Vernazza, lo habían recibido con el afecto y la adhesión al compromiso social de siempre. Mientras se saca los ornamentos litúrgicos lucha contra esa idea que lo invadía obsesivamente durante los últimos días; si bien seguía sosteniendo que un cura debe dar todo, hasta su vida, por los pobres, quedaba mucho por hacer.
Recuerda frases escritas por él dos años atrás: “Señor, sueño con morir por ellos, ayúdame a vivir para ellos. Señor, quiero estar con ellos a la hora de la luz, ayúdame”. Ya se dispone a salir cuando se vuelve para saludar a Vernazza; luego abre la puerta y camina por Zelada. Uno tras otro siente los golpes en el pecho. Antes de perder el sentido se da cuenta: no son golpes, son tiros.


Carlos Francisco Sergio Mugica Echagüe había nacido en la ciudad de Buenos Aires el 7 de octubre de 1930, en el seno de una familia de clase alta.
En 1949 ingresa a la Facultad de Derecho de la UBA, donde cursaría dos años. En su primer trabajo para la revista del seminario, en 1957, trata el tema de los católicos y la política. Paralelamente integra grupos misioneros en diferentes provincias de la Argentina. Tras ocho años de estudios es ordenado sacerdote el 21 de diciembre de 1959. Acompañando en un viaje al Chaco a su antiguo párroco —monseñor Iriarte, ya obispo de Reconquista— es testigo del subdesarrollo y la pobreza de la zona. Entre los años 1960 y 1963 el cardenal Antonio Caggiano lo nombra vicario cooperador de la parroquia Nuestra Señora del Socorro y asesor de la Juventud Estudiantil Católica.
A comienzos de 1960 el cardenal Caggiano le propone ser uno de sus secretarios en la Curia, pero Mugica responde que durante un año desea trabajar junto al recién designado obispo de Reconquista con quien había realizado tareas de evangelización en los conventillos de la ciudad.
En 1967, mientras estudia en París Epistemología, Semiología, Doctrina social de la Iglesia, Comunicación social y Teología, se entera del nacimiento del Movimiento de Sacerdotes para el Tercer Mundo, al cual adhiere de inmediato. Luego colabora con el equipo Intervillas, fundado en 1968 por el padre Goñi.
Por ese entonces se había realizado —entre 1962 y 1965— el Concilio Vaticano II, el único Concilio de la Iglesia que no produjo ninguna condenación ni proclamó ningún nuevo dogma sino que abrió la Iglesia al mundo moderno en un proceso de democratización interna. A partir de este Concilio se genera un catolicismo más comprometido con las realidades sociales.

En 1967 surge el Manifiesto de los Obispos del Tercer Mundo, rubricado por dieciocho obispos que afirman que el socialismo genera una sociedad más cercana al Evangelio que el capitalismo, al que rechazan. Un año después, el Manifiesto conduce a la creación del Movimiento de Sacerdotes del Tercer Mundo, a partir del cual surge la teología de la liberación, una reflexión realizada a través de la práctica que se opone a la teología conformada a partir de la institución eclesial.
Mugica —firme adversario de las jerarquías clericales consustanciadas con el poder económico y el privilegio— adhiere firmemente al catolicismo surgido a partir del Concilio, catolicismo puesto al servicio de la construcción de un mundo mejor, lo que sólo se lograría por medio de una práctica realizada desde el pueblo y con el pueblo.

Tiempo después la parroquia San Martín de Tours decide abrir una capilla en la villa 31 de Retiro ofreciéndole a Mugica el cargo rector. Y en el barrio Comunicaciones se levanta la capilla Cristo Obrero, donde ejerce su máxima actividad pastoral y donde comienza su tarea de cura villero.
A partir del golpe de Estado de Onganía comienza a comprometerse públicamente y expresa su pensamiento acerca de la violencia institucional, lo que lo lleva a la cárcel y a que el arzobispo Aramburu le suspende por un mes sus licencias ministeriales.

En 1974, durante el gobierno de Isabel Martínez de Perón, Mugica escribe el texto de la Misa para el Tercer Mundo, cuyo disco —grabado y editado por el sello RCA y que cuenta con la musicalización del Grupo Vocal Argentino— es destruido por orden del Ministerio del Interior. Para esta época comienzan a sucederse las amenazas de muerte. La revista “El Caudillo”, órgano de prensa de la derecha peronista dirigida por José López Rega, lo acusa de “bolche”.
El sábado 11 de mayo de 1974, alrededor de las ocho de la noche, Mugica se dispone a subir a su auto, estacionado frente a la iglesia San Francisco Solano del barrio de Flores, donde había celebrado misa, cuando es tiroteado por Rodolfo Eduardo Almirón, jefe de la nefasta organización paramilitar Triple A, comandada en las sombras por López Rega. Su cuerpo recibe seis disparos de ametralladora… Jorge Vernazza, su amigo y compañero, le administra la extremaunción.

De pronto vuelve de su sopor, se sobresalta, abre los ojos y dice: “Ahora más que nunca tenemos que estar junto al pueblo”. Quiere seguir hablando pero ya no puede. A las nueve de la noche el doctor Avelino Vicente Dolico certifica que las causas del fallecimiento habían sido heridas de bala en tórax y abdomen y una hemorragia interna.

Sus compañeros de siempre, sus villeros, llevan el féretro en hombros desde la Villa de Retiro hasta el cementerio de La Recoleta, donde es inhumado. Casi toda la prensa difunde la noticia de la muerte del Santo Villero.
El 9 de octubre de 1999 los restos de Carlos Mugica son trasladados desde el cementerio de la Recoleta a la capilla Cristo Obrero del barrio Comunicaciones de la Villa de Retiro. Acompaña la ceremonia la murga Los Crotos de Constitución, hecho que conmueve a todo el barrio y que lleva a un grupo de jóvenes a crear la murga Los Guardianes de Mugica.

“Señor, perdóname por haberme acostumbrado a ver que los chicos que parecen tener ocho años tengan trece.
Señor, perdóname por encender la luz olvidándome de que ellos no pueden hacerlo. Señor, yo puedo hacer huelga de hambre, ellos no, porque nadie hace huelga con su hambre.”

 

(*) A partir de la década de 1970 las Fuerzas Armadas ponen la mira en los sectores progresistas de la Iglesia Católica, a los que consideran subversivos, ocupándose especialmente de las diócesis de Neuquén, La Rioja y Goya, cuyos obispos, Jaime de Nevares, Enrique Angelelli y Alberto Devoto, son considerados sospechosos.
Entre 1974 y 1983 fueron asesinados o desaparecidos otros quince sacerdotes. Ellos fueron: Carlos Dorniak, asesinado en Bahía Blanca el 21 de marzo de 1975. NelioRougier, detenido en Córdoba en septiembre de 1975, desaparecido. Miguel AngelUrusa Nicolau, detenido en Rosario el 10 de enero de 1976, desaparecido. Pedro Fourcade, detenido el 8 de marzo de 1976, desaparecido. Pedro Duffau, asesinado en Buenos Aires el 4 de julio de 1976. Alfredo Kelly, asesinado en Buenos Aires el 4 de julio de 1976. Alfredo Leaden, asesinado en Buenos Aires, 4 de julio de 1976. Gabriel Longueville, asesinado en Chamical, La Rioja, el 18 de julio de 1976. Carlos de Dios Murias, asesinado en Chamical, La Rioja, el 18 de noviembre de 1976. Héctor Federico Baccini, detenido en La Plata el 25 de noviembre de 1976, desaparecido. Pablo Gazzari, detenido en Buenos Aires el 8 de abril de 1977, desaparecido. Carlos Armando Bustos, detenido en Buenos Aires, el 8 de abril de 1977, desaparecido. Mauricio Silva lribarnegaray, detenido en Buenos Aires el 14 de junio de 1977, desaparecido. Jorge Adur, detenido el 7 de enero de 1980, desaparecido.
Es necesario agregar a esta lista a los obispos Enrique Angel Angelelli, de La Rioja, y Carlos Ponce de León, de San Nicolás de los Arroyos, quienes mueren en “accidentes” automovilísticos ocurridos, respectivamente, en agosto de 1976 y en julio de 1977.

 

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