Francia 2018-2019. Cuando el amarillo cambió de color

Todo esto está sucediendo aquí y ahora. No será fácil estructurar una alternativa a la llamada “democracia neoliberal” que no es ni liberal ni democrática.

CRÓNICAS POÉTICAS DEL TERCER MILENIO

Escribe desde París: José Muchnik

Diciembre 2018

El cerezo desnudo en mi ventana, cinco de enero 2019, escucho las últimas noticias del octavo episodio “Gilets Jaunes” (chalecos amarillos), pronunciar “Yilé Yone” en fonética porteña (la segunda “e” murmurada). Podría ser una exitosa marca de perfume. Beso de enamorados sobre fondo de barricada en llamas: Yilé Yone aroma que transporta. Sexagenarios festejando Navidad en una rotonda, cantando en derredor del fogón, salchichas de Toulouse a punto en la parrilla: Yilé Yone aroma de vida. Mujeres enardecidas enarbolando un cartel « Précarisées, discriminées, révoltées, femmes en première ligne » (“precarizadas, discriminadas, indignadas mujeres en primera línea”) Yilé Yone aroma de rebelión. «El gobierno quiere hacernos pasar por extremistas, pero somos madres, abuelas, hijas, somos las mujeres, las hermanas de todos los ciudadanos, y queremos decir que nuestra bronca es legítima. Es en las crisis sociales que los derechos de las mujeres corren más peligro” declara Chloé en una agitada entrevista radial. No invento nada, traduzco lo que escucho. Batalla campal en el Boulavard Saint Germain de París, entran en las oficinas del portavoz del presidente, lo evacúan de urgencia…  En Bordeaux, Marseille,  Rouen, Rennes, Montpellier… miles de chalecos amarillos en la calle para este primer episodio del año, el octavo de la serie.

Como siempre los opinadores seriales se precipitan sobre frutas frescas tratando de sacarles jugo, encasillan la realidad con calificativos y conceptos prefabricados.

Nadie esperaba esta erupción, ni gobierno ni partidos políticos ni escuelas académicas, ni yo ni usted. Sacudones sociales menos predictibles que temblores de tierra. ¡Y ya estamos presenciando el octavo episodio! Desde el 17 de noviembre la marea golpea todos los sábados, calles plazas rutas de Francia (aclaremos que los episodios se programan sábado pues no se trata de una huelga, los participantes, como es normal, trabajan el resto de la semana). El pueblo francés entró en movimiento, antes de sacar conclusiones eruditas escuchemos, palpemos vibraciones. Historia transcurre, con tramos calmos y torrentosos, tengo la sensación de vivir un acontecimiento histórico, esto no es Netflix, el suspenso es natural, no hay guionistas para diseñar un final que cierre, Historia fluye abierta, dejarse flotar,  zambullirse en presente del indicativo, no soy profeta ni tengo bolas de cristal, siento / percibo, palabras gestos movimientos ¿Qué más puedo hacer? Josecito pará un poco, esto es un diario, los lectores quieren entender. Así es Mario, así es, pero no puedo expresar lo que yo mismo no entiendo. Por algo este espacio se intitula “Crónicas poéticas del tercer milenio”, se trata de testimonios dirigidos a los habitantes del futuro, no es periodismo exprés, si algunos de mis contemporáneos quieren leerlos, tal vez les sean de alguna utilidad, llevará mucho tiempo entender.

¿Qué pasa? Contanos en pocas palabras ¿Qué pasa? De acuerdo, de acuerdo, haré un esfuerzo, trataré de explicar algo. ¡¡¡LA GENTE ESTÁ PODRIDA!!!

¿Se entiende? ¡¡¡La gente está podrida!!! Todo empezó con un banal aumento del impuesto a la nafta y al diesel, luego se propagó el incendio. “Yo también quiero ir al cine de vez en cuando” contesta una Yilé Yone al ministro trajeado en un programa de tele. “Pero no sólo no tengo plata, sino que hace años que no hay más cines en nuestro comuna”. La gente está podrida de no llegar a fin de mes, de que los traten como mierda, del deterioro de los servicios públicos (hospitales transportes enseñanza…), la gente está podrida de trabajos precarios, la gente está podrida de que no la escuchen, de pagar más impuestos más impuestos más… La gente está aún más podrida porque sabe, sabe que las grandes multinacionales no pagan impuestos, o pagan sumas irrisorias en toda legalidad (caso ejemplar las GAFA – Google, Apple, Face-Book, Amazon). La gente sabe que los ricos ponen sus fortunas al abrigo en “paraísos fiscales”, conocen los salarios indecentes de los CEO de grandes compañías (caso ejemplar Carlos Ghosn, CEO de Renault / Nissan, salario 15 millones de euros anuales, preso en Japón hace dos meses por falsificación de declaraciones fiscales y abuso de bienes sociales de la empresa). Tal vez sea una explicación demasiado rústica para un historiador “comme il faut”, pero para este poeta ferretero la razón de base es que “LA GENTE ESTÁ PODRIDA”. La mayoría de los Yilé Yone, empleados obreros enseñantes artesanos pequeños empresarios… decidieron decir basta.

Claro que una vez que “las cosas” entran en movimiento, se producen carambolas inesperadas, por eso Historia es imprevisible.

Cuando la gente empezó  a juntarse en espacios virtuales y reales, cuando empezaron a encontrarse en campamentos improvisados, en rotondas de pequeñas y grandes rutas, cuando vieron que la prensa hablaba de ellos, cuando comenzaron a realizar “asambleas ciudadanas” en pueblos invisibles desde hace años. Entonces la gente se dio cuenta de que podía dejar de ser mayoría silenciosa. La gente se dio cuenta de que podían ser sujetos, de que podían existir, de que su existencia individual dependía de su existencia colectiva. Muchos de ellos no habían participado en una asamblea ni en una manifestación en su vida, y de repente existían, devenían un ser social. “Ahora vuelvo a casa y tengo de qué hablar con mis hijas” dice una mujer. “En vez de mirar dibujos animados, comenzaron a mirar el noticioso conmigo”. Se diría que el movimiento profundiza la reflexión “A ellos les interesa sólo el valor de sus acciones bursátiles a nosotros los valores humanos” afirma una maestra entrada en años con su chaleco amarillo, agregando “Somos seres humanos, con sus dignidades y sus afectos”. A la cuestión económica (impuestos, salario mínimo, jubilaciones…) se le suma la cuestión existencial, “Pasaremos Navidad en la rotonda, familias y gente sola, todos yilé yone” afirma un camionero. Se atreven y van por más “El pueblo somos nosotros, nosotros tenemos el derecho de decidir nuestro destino” Comienzan a organizar sitios internet, proponen “Referendos de Iniciativa Ciudadana” (RIC) para aprobar o promulgar leyes, elaboran una plataforma con 42 reivindicaciones [1]. “El problema no es el gobierno, es el sistema” lanza una Yilé Yone con abundante cabellera, los cuarenta bien llevados. Este cronista concuerda, no habrá democracia política sin democracia fiscal, como ya lo estableció la “Declaración de los derechos del hombre y del ciudadano” de 1789 la contribución impositiva “debe estar igualmente repartida entre todos los ciudadanos, en razón de sus posibilidades”. (art. 13). La eliminación del ISF (impuesto a las grandes fortunas) decretada por el actual gobierno, va en contra de ese principio, debilita las bases de la democracia.

Todo esto está sucediendo aquí y ahora. No será fácil estructurar una alternativa a la llamada “democracia neoliberal” que no es ni liberal ni democrática.

Por supuesto las fuerzas políticas tratarán de pescar a río revuelto. Al día de la fecha podemos afirmar que los yilé yone, no tienen una perspectiva racista o xenófoba, no culpabilizan como Salvini, Le Pen, Orban etcétera, al extranjero o a los inmigrantes de sus problemas, sino al “sistema”, tampoco se caracterizan por la violencia o pretenden una insurrección armada, pese a que la prensa ponga en primera plana desmanes barricadas y coches quemados, pues en la sociedad del espectáculo es lo que se ve / se vende. Imposible predecir el futuro pero podemos formular dos reflexiones, conocemos un poco el pasado: 1) Historia nos enseña que el pueblo francés fue protagonista de hechos fundamentales con consecuencias mucho más allá de sus fronteras, entre ellos: 1789 Revolución Francesa; 1871 La Comuna de Paris; 1968: El Mayo francés. Una intuición: la marea de los Chalecos amarillos dejará sus huellas, tocará costas de otros océanos ¿Cómo? ¿Cuándo? Vaya a saber 2) Un detalle no despreciable, el cambio del color amarillo, de los valores asociado a este color. Así como una vela puede ayudar a iluminar una caverna, un pequeño detalle puede aclarar más de lo que imaginamos. Efectivamente todos los colores están asociados a representaciones, valores simbólicos, que cambian con las evoluciones sociales. Durante la antigüedad el amarillo tenía una simbólica positiva, estaba asociado a la luz y a las divinidades solares, en Roma era usado en ceremonias rituales, en China reservado al emperador, luego, en la edad media, sobre todo en occidente, se cargó de una simbólica negativa, herejes brujas locos traidores apestados…, eran así marcados, Hitler usó las estrellas de David amarillas para estigmatizar a los judíos, hasta en nuestros días los “sindicatos amarillos” simbolizan la traición. Podríamos hablar largo y tendido sobre el tema, del amarillo o de otros colores, pero no es el lugar ni el momento. Sólo destacar que después de los Yilé Yone ese color se asociará tal vez a la rebelión y a la contestación.

Un movimiento que cambie la simbólica de un color en la historia da para pensar un poco. En todo caso en algunos países ya comenzaron a prohibir la venta de chalecos amarillos.

 

[1]. https://www.nouvelobs.com/politique/ 20181129.OBS6307/gilets-jaunes-on-a-decortique-chacune-des-42-revendications-du-mouvement.html

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