Carta de una médica a los senadores

Ante la inminente discusión en el Senado de la Nación sobre la Ley de despenalización del aborto, una médica argentina que trabaja en Londres desde 1976 –la Dra. Irene Scheimberg– dirigió una carta a los senadores para pedirles que reflexionen antes de votar la ley.

Estimado/a Senador/a:

Mi especialidad es la patología placentaria, fetal, perinatal y pediátrica; soy coeditora de dos libros sobre el tema, he escrito numerosos capítulos en libros y tengo 45 publicaciones en revistas internacionales sobre mi especialidad; soy la Secretaria de la Asociación Internacional de Patología Pediátrica (IPPA) y la fundadora y primera Presidente del Grupo de Trabajo de Patología Perinatal y Pediátrica de la Asociación Europea de Patología (ESP). Mi trabajo consiste en diagnosticar enfermedades y ayudar de esa forma a que las mujeres que lo desean puedan tener hijos sanos. En el Reino Unido el aborto es legal desde 1967. Nadie obliga a ninguna mujer a abortar. Si se trata de malformaciones congénitas diagnosticadas después de la semana 14 (muchas se diagnostican a eso de las 19-20 semanas) se les explica a las mujeres cuáles son las alternativas y ellas elijen. Algunas deciden terminar el embarazo y yo examino esos fetos. Otras deciden continuar y muchas experimentan una muerte fetal intrauterina y yo también examino esos fetos. La decisión es siempre de la mujer. Y si tiene una pareja estable, es frecuentemente de los dos.

Dra. Irene Scheimberg

En el Reino Unido, el Real Colegio de Obstetras y Ginecólogos que agrupa a todos los profesionales de esta especialidad está a favor de liberalizar la ley en el país de tal forma que antes de las 14 semanas la mujer pueda elegir abortar sin necesidad de la firma de dos médicos. El número total de abortos en el Reino Unido (cifras sacadas del informe oficial del gobierno británico publicadas el 7 de junio de 2018) en 2017 fue 190.406 abortos (menor que el del año anterior). La tasa total de abortos fue de 16/1000 mujeres. 92% de abortos se realizaron antes de las 13 semanas (y 81% antes de las 10 semanas); 62% fueron terminaciones médicas (no quirúrgicas). La mayoría de los abortos entre 13 y 24 semanas fueron por malformaciones congénitas graves, generalmente nerviosas o cardíacas. A nivel internacional y de acuerdo al Instituto Guttmacher en los países desarrollados, la tasa de abortos por cada 1000 mujeres ha bajado de 46/1000 en 1990-94 a 27/1000 en 2010-14, mientras que en los países en desarrollo (en muchos de los cuales el aborto es ilegal) la tasa de abortos ha pasado de 39/1000 a 36/1000. Estas cifras reflejan la diferencia en la disponibilidad de una educación sexual y de anticonceptivos adecuados.  

Para la mayoría de los especialistas en biología la vida es un continuo que empezó hace millones de años. Sin un óvulo y un espermatozoide vivos no hay fecundación. La dependencia del embrión y del feto no viable es absoluta y no es posible la vida fuera del útero. No se trata de un organismo independiente aunque tenga un ADN diferente, que por cierto, comparte con la placenta. La cualidad de persona no es dada solamente por el ADN sino también por las interacciones con la sociedad que nos rodea. El feto de menos de 24 semanas no tiene ni siquiera un sistema nervioso central desarrollado como para sentir dolor, tal como lo demuestran las publicaciones científicas. Los que argumentan que la vida empieza con la concepción (cosa que no comparto por lo dicho anteriormente) otorgan la calidad de persona basados exclusivamente en un ADN diferente.  Es probable que nunca nos pongamos de acuerdo.

Pero la legislación se debe hacer para que abarque a una mayoría de personas.Aquellos que están en contra del aborto no van a recurrir a él y nadie les va a imponer abortar.

Pero imponer creencias a las personas que no las comparten no es digno de un régimen democrático y el aborto legal y seguro debe existir para aquellas que lo necesiten y lo quieran usar.

Por eso la gran mayoría de países democráticos tiene una ley de aborto seguro. La necesidad de la gratuidad es para que esté al alcance de las mujeres más pobres que quieran optar por el aborto. Se trata en definitiva de dejar decidir a cada mujer qué es lo mejor en cada momento de su vida. A diferencia del feto, la mujer tiene una presencia en la sociedad y debe ser respetada como tal, un derecho reconocido por la Declaración Internacional de Derechos Humanos.  

Como todos los que defendemos el aborto legal y gratuito yo creo que es necesaria una educación sexual franca en las escuelas y mejorar el acceso a los anticonceptivos, incluso en lugares rurales. Como médica sé sin embargo que los anticonceptivos pueden fallar y por eso necesitamos esta ley.  

Cualquiera que sea la posición individual frente al aborto, es una realidad que no va a desaparecer. Nuestro deber como médicos y ciudadanos es legalizarlo y regularlo por el bien de la sociedad.

Estoy a su disposición para cualquier pregunta y para relatarles la experiencia en el Reino Unido y para mandarle la información pertinente que necesite. Atentamente,”

Dra. Irene Scheimberg, DNI 11.957.194

Consultant Paediatric and Perinatal Pathologist / The Royal London Hospital / 29/06/2018

(Los resaltados son nuestros)

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