Carlos Augusto Fernandes

Carlos Augusto Fernandes (1937 – 2018)
Escribe: Pablo Bellocchio

El mundo teatral está lleno de docentes. Vivimos en tiempos convulsionados donde sale a la luz la oscuridad de algunos casos en los que maestros teatrales hacen uso de su rol para violentar, cercenar y hasta abusar de sus alumnos generando un estigma en la profesión que es muy difícil de borrar. Estos son tiempos donde la profesión de maestro de teatro, como muchos otros roles que detentan cierto poder, están en jaque. Perder en un momento como éste a un verdadero maestro como Carlos Augusto Fernandes, duele doblemente.

Un luminoso faro teatral, brújula de muchos de los que nos dedicamos a actuar y a dirigir, sus enseñanzas han sido –y siguen siéndolo– una de las principales columnas del teatro argentino, habiendo modelado una enorme cantidad de actores, formadores y directores teatrales hasta sus últimos días.

Un hombre prolífico, vinculado profunda y profusamente al arte en todas sus formas, especialmente a la pintura de la cual decía que era su verdadera vocación y que en ella encontraba un estado meditativo alejado de “la promiscuidad” a la que el teatro invita, por tratarse de una actividad necesariamente colectiva. Muchas veces sus ejemplos en clase derivaban en apasionantes recorridos por las distintas ramas del arte que enriquecían a sus alumnos y trascendían la formación actoral nutriendo generosamente a los seres humanos que aguardábamos sus enseñanzas.

Resulta ineludible repasar su enorme trayectoria, transitando sucintamente algunos de sus logros. Formó parte del grupo Nuevo Teatro y luego fundó, junto a otros compañeros, el grupo de teatro Juan Cristóbal. En 1957, se fusionó con el grupo La Máscara, que lo antecedía en el teatro independiente, dirigido por Ricardo Passano, Álvaro Yunque y Elías Castelnuovo, asociación de la que luego sería director artístico.

Dirigió su primera obra en 1962, Soledad para cuatro, de Ricardo Halac. También por esos años comenzó su carrera como maestro.

Se formó con la destacada docente de actores Hedy Crilla. “Crilla fue el eslabón entre Stanislavski y nuestro medio. Fue la primera persona que habló de conectar al actor con sus propias vivencias, y así salimos de la sobreactuación” –diría Fernandes de su maestra.

Comenzó a relacionarse con Alejandra Boero, Agustín Alezzo y Carlos Gandolfo, entre otros colegas que empezaban a atender y aplicar las teorías de Stanislavski.

En 1966 fundó en Buenos Aires su propia escuela, dirigida a actores y directores. En el exterior replicó su labor docente, dictando seminarios de entrenamiento para actores profesionales y talleres de dirección de actores para directores de cine y televisión.

Fundó el Café Teatral Estudio y el Equipo de Teatro Experimental de Buenos Aires (Eteba) con el que estrenó La leyenda de Pedro, adaptación libre de Peer Gynt, de Henrik Ibsen, creación que lo llevó a varios festivales, entre ellos, al de Nancy (Francia), la Reseña Internacional de Florencia (Italia) y al Theatertreffen 1970 en Berlín (Alemania).

En Alemania, realizó una de sus puestas más audaces, Vida y sueño del Príncipe Segismundo, versión libre y propia de La vida es sueño, de Calderón de la Barca, en el Teatro Estatal de Frankfurt del Meno (Schauspielhaus Frankfurt, Alemania); la adaptación, que le llevó seis meses de trabajo, contaba con una escenografía de su diseño que a partir del escenario desnudo se iba armando a la vista del público y la función, que se extendía por cuatro horas, incluía hasta batallas. Sobre esa puesta declaró: “En aquel espectáculo, el espectador veía el teatro, pero al mismo tiempo estaba viendo el juego del actor que le hacía ver un palacio”.

Cuando estaba por regresar de la “gira” –relata Augusto– “recibí una carta de Alezzo donde me decía que todavía no volviera, que estaba en una lista –de la “Triple A”–, que era mejor esperar un poco a que todo eso pasara. Y así me quedé en Europa diez años”.

Su trabajo con versiones sobre obras de Ibsen, Strindberg, Griselda Gambaro, Chejov, Shakespeare y Federico García Lorca, entre muchos otros, le acarreó prestigio y distinciones.

Ya en la década de 1980, en Estados Unidos, tuvo contacto con Lee Strasberg –el responsable de “el método” y el Actor’s Studio–,

“yo había invitado a Strasberg a dar un seminario en Alemania, y a raíz de eso y por compartir con él la dirección artística del Teatro de Bochum (Alemania), gestionamos y conseguimos una beca del gobierno alemán para estudiar en el instituto de Strasberg de Los Angeles”, explicaba el maestro en un reportaje.

Regresó al país en 1982 y ahí se volcó intensamente a la dirección aunque sin abandonar la docencia. Entre sus puestas en escena se encuentran “El campo”, “Negro… azul, negro”, “Del tiempo de los carozos”, “El relámpago”, “El pie”, “La leyenda de Pedro”, “El baño de los pájaros”, “Rigoletto”, “Madera de reyes”, “Ensueño”, “La gaviota”, “Ella y él”.

Entre sus últimas propuestas se encuentra “1938. Un asunto criminal” (2016). Por primera vez ocupó tres roles: actuó, dirigió y escribió el texto. En rigor, se trató del primer texto suyo, aunque sus adaptaciones contenían ya su impronta. “Cuando uno tiene esta edad no lo convocan; tiene que convocarse solo. Estoy en el último acto de mi vida”, expresaba para una nota en Página 12 previa al estreno. Protagonizó esta obra junto a Hugo Arana y Beatriz Spelzini, con producción a cargo del Teatro Cervantes. El espectáculo ponía en escena un triángulo amoroso cuya historia se jugaba en Bariloche el año en que preludiaba la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Un profundo estudioso de la astrología, siempre nos decía que le ayudaba a comprender la estructura de los personajes. Solía aplicar muchos ejemplos en sus clases utilizando sus vastos conocimientos sobre el tema.

Más allá de su extenso recorrido en todas las áreas del quehacer teatral, siempre fue, sobre todo, un docente de alma, de esos cuya vocación le brota en cada clase y de los que se obsesionan por hacernos crecer. Particularmente recuerdo cuando en una de sus lecciones magistrales nos dijo: “Yo no soy generoso. No pretendan de mí que trabaje con ustedes si ustedes no trabajan. No pretendan de mí que les responda preguntas que ustedes no se hagan. Estudiar, teatro o cualquier otra cosa, es por sobre todo tener la obcecada obstinación de aprender. Mientras sea ese el camino que elijan, cuenten conmigo”.

Ésa era la enorme generosidad del maestro; no solo la de formarnos, sino la de inculcar a sus discípulos la enorme responsabilidad de hacerlo con pasión, disciplina y perseverancia.

 

 

 

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