Aquel 17 del 45

El 17 de octubre fue una Fuenteovejuna, nadie y todos lo hicieron”.  (Arturo Jauretche)

 

Las patas en la fuente

¿Cómo habrá sido convivir con aquella jornada popular, con aquel 17 de octubre que se recuerda como punto de partida de las conquistas populares? Han pasado 73 años y la inevitable pátina del tiempo mezcla el horror presente con el mito acumulado y nos devuelve la imagen sepiada de aquellas “patas en la fuente”.

Queda, sin embargo, el lúcido testimonio de pensadores contemporáneos del ’45 que nos develan el misterio de la convivencia con los hechos.

 

 

 

“Esa tarde de sol, el pueblo, olvidado y traicionado, se sublevó desde el suelo. El sol caía a plomo cuando las primeras columnas de obreros comenzaron a llegar. Venían con su traje de fajina, porque acudían directamente de sus fábricas y talleres. No era esa muchedumbre un poco envarada que los domingos invade los parques de diversiones con hábito de burgués barato. Frente a mis ojos desfilaban rostros atezados, brazos membrudos, torsos fornidos, con las greñas al aire y las vestiduras escasas cubiertas de pringues, de restos de breas, grasas y aceites. Llegaban cantando y vociferando, unidos en la imprecación de un solo nombre: Perón. Era la muchedumbre más heteróclita que la imaginación puede concebir.

Un pujante palpitar sacudía la entraña de la ciudad. Un hálito áspero crecía en densas vaharadas, mientras las multitudes continuaban llegando. Venían de las usinas de Puerto Nuevo, de los talleres de la Chacarita y Villa Crespo, de las manufacturas de San Martín y Vicente López, de las fundiciones y acerías del Riachuelo, de las hilanderías de Barracas. Brotaban de los pantanos de Gerli y Avellaneda o descendían de las Lomas de Zamora. Hermanados en el mismo grito y en la misma fe iban el peón de campo de Cañuelas y el tornero de precisión, el fundidor mecánico de automóviles, la hilandera y el peón. Era el subsuelo de la Patria sublevado. Era el cimiento básico de la Nación que asomaba, como asoman las épocas pretéritas de la tierra en la conmoción del terremoto. Era el substrato de nueva idiosincrasia y de nuestras posibilidades colectivas allí presente en su primordialidad sin reatos y sin disimulos. Era el de nadie y el sin nada en una multiplicidad casi infinita de gamas y matices humanos, aglutinados por el mismo estremecimiento y el mismo impulso, sostenidos por una misma verdad que una sola palabra traducía: Perón”.

                                                                       Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz [1]

 

“(…) A las 7 –informa la policía– en Brasil y Paseo Colón fueron obligadas a dispersarse alrededor de mil personas que venían desde la provincia de Buenos Aires y se dirigían hacia Casa de Gobierno. Poco después, se conoce la información de que el ferrocarril del sur ha dejado de funcionar y que se encuentran los trenes detenidos por los trabajadores en Gerli y Lanús.

A las 8 y 30, es disuelta una manifestación en el cruce de Independencia y Paseo Colón. A las 8 y 40, alrededor mil quinientas personas se concentran en Plaza de Mayo. A las 9, por Alsina hacia el oeste, va una columna estimada en cuatro mil trabajadores. A las 9 y 30, es dispersada una numerosa concentración reunida frente al Puente Pueyrredón, del lado de la provincia.

Se estima que alcanzaría aproximadamente a diez mil personas. A esa hora, las fuerzas de seguridad levantan los brazos del puente para impedir el acceso de los manifestantes a la Capital, pero rato después se bajan, facilitando el paso.

A las 10 se disuelve una manifestación de cuatrocientas personas en México y Azopardo, mientras se informa que algunos manifestantes han logrado cruzar el puente sobre el Riachuelo y que una columna de diez cuadras avanza por la calle Montes de Oca hacia el centro.

En esa mañana del 17 de octubre vino a verme un dirigente de Lanús, Pedro Arnaldi, obrero de la construcción, artesano especialista en chimeneas de casas-habitación. Serían las 9 y 30 de la mañana. Entra y me dice:

–Doctor, nos venimos todos al centro.

–¿Quiénes?

–Nosotros, todos, los obreros, los bolicheros, la gente del barrio, los maestros de escuela, todo el barrio se viene al centro. Porque ya no hay más radicales, no hay más conservadores, no hay más socialistas. Hay peronistas. La gente está con Perón y no hay más remedio. O Perón o la oligarquía. ¿Qué hago, doctor?

Le dije:

–¡Agarrá la bandera y ponete al frente!…

Así empezó esa marcha increíble, gente que vino desde La Plata, columnas que venían a pie, desde todos los ángulos… Pedro Arnaldi, que movía treinta votos en Gerli, pasó el Puente Pueyrredón con su bandera al frente de diez mil almas…

Y en todas las provincias se producía el mismo fenómeno (…) Aquello era el enfrentamiento entre la Argentina desconocida y la Argentina conocida.

El 17 de octubre fue una Fuenteovejuna, nadie y todos lo hicieron”.

                                                                         Arturo Jauretche [2]

 

 “Era muy de mañana, y yo acababa de ponerle a mi mujer una inyección de morfina (sus dolores lo hacían necesario cada tres horas). El coronel Perón había sido traído ya desde Martín García. Mi domicilio era este mismo departamento de calle Rivadavia. De pronto me llegó desde el oeste un rumor como de multitudes que avanzaban gritando y cantando por la calle Rivadavia: el rumor fue creciendo y agigantándose hasta que reconocí primero la música de una canción popular y, enseguida, su letra: “Yo te daré/ te daré, Patria hermosa/ te daré una cosa/ una cosa que empieza con P/ Perón”. “Y aquel ‘Perón’ resonaba periódicamente como un cañonazo. Me vestí apresuradamente, bajé a la calle y me uní a la multitud que avanzaba rumbo a la Plaza de Mayo. Vi, reconocí, y amé los miles de rostros que la integraban, no había rencor en ellos, sino la alegría de salir a la visibilidad en reclamo de su líder. Era la Argentina ‘invisible’ que algunos habían anunciado literariamente, sin conocer ni amar sus millones de caras concretas, y que no bien las conocieron les dieron la espalda. Desde aquellas horas, me hice peronista”.

                                                                      Leopoldo Marechal  [3]

 

 

  1. Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz (1898 – 1959) fue un pensador, historiador, filósofo, periodista, escritor, ensayista y poeta argentino, agrimensor e ingeniero de profesión. Adhirió a la corriente revisionista de la historiografía argentina.? Mantuvo una estrecha relación con Perón aunque nunca aceptó cargo alguno en el gobierno.
  2. 2. Arturo Martín Jauretche (1901 – 1974) fue un pensador, escritor y político argentino. Figura relevante de la Unión Cívica Radical y del peronismo a partir del luego evocado como Día de la Lealtad (17 de octubre de 1945).
  3. Leopoldo Marechal (1900 – 1970) fue un poeta, dramaturgo, novelista y ensayista argentino, autor de Adán Buenosayres, una de las novelas más importantes de la literatura argentina del siglo XX. La elite literaria, especialmente la porteña, le pasó factura por su abierta adhesión al peronismo.

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